Monthly Archives: February 2017

Learn More About Correcting Steering Pulls

Ever take a long trip in a vehicle with a steering pull problem? Having to maintain constant pressure on the steering wheel can very tiring, not to mention hard on the tires. A vehicle with a pull problem is a vehicle that is fighting the forces of nature. Something is amiss and is causing the vehicle to follow a path other than a straight one.

There are actually several different types of steering pull: a steady pull, a pull that only occurs after turning (memory steer), or a pull that only occurs under certain driving conditions such as bump steer or torque steer.

¬†An off-center steering wheel may or may not accompany a pull (which we’ll cover shortly). Other times the pull may be more of a “drift” or steering wander to one side or the other. So let’s look at some of the common pull-related conditions along with their causes and what you have to do to eliminate them.


This is a condition where the vehicle continually pulls or drifts to one side while traveling straight. The driver typically has to maintain steady pressure on the steering wheel to keep the vehicle on the road. Possible causes include:

Uneven camber side-to-side. Too much cross-camber can make a vehicle pull or lead towards the side that has the most (positive) camber or away from the side that has the least (negative) camber. The underlying cause may be a bent strut or mislocated strut tower, a bent spindle, collapsed control arm bushing, weak or broken spring, or a shifted crossmember or engine cradle. Check SAI and the included angle to see if these are in or out of specs to diagnose the problem. Also check ride height. Correct by replacing worn or damaged parts, correcting location of strut tower, repositioning engine cradle, and/or reducing cross-camber to half a degree or less by readjusting camber to specifications.

Uneven caster side-to-side. Too much cross-caster can make a vehicle pull or lead towards the side that has the least (negative) caster. The underlying cause may be a bent strut, spindle or mislocated strut tower. Correct by replacing damaged part, correcting location of strut tower, and/or reducing cross-caster to half a degree or less by resetting caster to specifications.

Rear axle steer. The front wheels are with alignment specifications but the vehicle pulls to one side. The underlying cause may be rear toe out of specifications, a bent rear axle, chassis misalignment or a stackup of assembly tolerances in the chassis causing rear axle misalignment. Measure and compare the wheelbase on both sides, check for the presence of a thrust angle, and/or measure individual rear toe. Correct by realigning the rear axle or rear toe, or by performing a thrust angle alignment.

Brake drag. The pull is constant to one side and may get worse with the application of the brakes. Raise the vehicle and spin each wheel by hand to check for excessive drag. Possible causes include caliper sticking, frozen or sticking piston in caliper, overfilled fluid reservoir in master cylinder (does not allow caliper pistons to retract when brakes are released), weak drum brake return springs, misadjusted drum brakes, misadjusted parking brake, misadjusted parking brake pedal switch (creates residual pressure in the master cylinder to cause drag). Readjust or repair brakes as required.

NOTE: If the pull only occurs when the brakes are applied, the problem may be unequal braking not a dragging caliper or misalignment. The vehicle will pull towards the side with the stronger front brake and away from the side with the weaker or inoperative front brake. Uneven braking can be caused by a sticking floating caliper, a frozen caliper piston, the use of different grades or brands of brake linings side-to-side, fluid leaks, or contaminated linings on one side (by brake fluid or grease). Correct by repairing brakes as required. Other causes may include worn or loose control arm bushings or strut rod bushings that allow alignment changes when braking, so be sure to inspect these components before blaming the brakes.

Low tire pressure. The vehicle will lead towards the side with low pressure in the front tire. Correct by inflating tires to recommended pressure.

Mismatched tires side-to-side. The vehicle will pull or lead towards the side that offers the greatest rolling resistance. Compare tire sizes, tread wear, tread styles and patterns, also brands.

Uneven tire wear. If one side of the tread is worn more than the other, the tire develops conicity. The effect is much the same as camber, causing the tire to roll towards the side which is worn most. The uneven wear may be the result of incorrect camber, toe and/or failure to rotate the tires periodically to even out wear. If rotating the tires side-to-side reverses the direction of the pull, the tires need to be replaced.

Ply steer. A manufacturing defect in the way the belts are positioned inside the tire causes the tire to generate a lateral (sideways) force as the tire rolls. To test for this condition, drive the vehicle forward, then in reverse. If the direction of the drift or pull changes, one or more tires at at fault. Rotating the tires front-to-rear or crosswise may help cancel out the ply steer, otherwise tire replacement is necessary to correct the condition.

Unbalanced power assist. Seal leaks in the control valve or off-center steering may route hydraulic pressure into one side or the other of the boost cylinder piston causing the steering to want to turn itself to one side. This can be checked by raising the wheels with the engine running to see if the wheels turn to one side by themselves. No change would indicate another cause, but if the pull suddenly vanishes an imbalance in the power steering system is to blame. The control valve assembly or steering gear needs to be replaced.

Excessive road crown. Roads are raised or crowned in the middle so rain water will run off to the outside for proper drainage. But the slight slope to the pavement can often make a vehicle drift to the outside. This can be countered by adding a little positive camber and/or negative caster to the left front wheel , but this should only be done if the vehicle spends most of its time on crowned roads and you have a noticeable pull.


The steering wheel and wheels want to return to some position other than center. This may cause a steering pull or drift to one side after turning. Possible causes include:

Misalignment or improper installation of Ford rubber bonded socket (RBS) tie rod ends. RBS tie rod ends do not swivel freely like conventional tie rod ends. When installed, the steering linkage must be centered and straight ahead before the tie rod studs are tightened. Inspect and readjust as needed.

Binding in upper strut mounts. Raise wheels and turn the steering from side to side. If effort is high, disconnect tie rod ends from steering arms and turn each wheel by hand to check for resistance. If upper strut mount is binding or loose, the strut will have to removed or rebuilt to replace the upper bearing plate assembly.

Binding in steering gear or linkage. Inspect tie rod ends and sockets. Check idler arm bushing. Check rack yoke adjustment or steering play in steering box. Replace or adjust as needed.

Binding in ball joints. Unload the ball joints by raising the suspension. Let the suspension hang free with MacPherson struts. Support the lower control arm on an SLA, modified strut or wishbone suspension if the spring is on the lower arm, or the upper arm if the spring is over the upper arm). Turn the wheels from side to side to check steering effort. If high, disconnect the tie rod ends and try again. If a ball joint is binding, replacement is required.

Unbalanced power assist. Seal leaks in the control valve or off-center steering may route hydraulic pressure into one side or the other of the boost cylinder piston causing the steering to want to turn itself to one side. This can be checked by raising the wheels with the engine running. If the steering goes to one side all by itself, the control valve assembly or steering gear needs to be replaced.


This condition may accompany a steady pull or memory steer. But if the steering wheel is off-center (crooked) but there is no pull to either side, possible causes include:

Steering linkage not centered when toe was adjusted. Correct by recentering steering wheel and equalizing lengths of both tie rods, then readjusting toe to specifications.

Bent steering arm or linkage. Check turning angle both ways. If arm is bent, knuckle (or strut if arm is attached to strut) will have to be replaced.


The vehicle lacks directional stability and wanders or drifts from side to side. Possible causes include:

Loose or worn steering components. Inspect the tie rod ends, inner tie rod sockets on rack & pinion steering units, and the idler arm and center link on parallelogram steering. Check the steering column couplings. Also check for loose or broken rack mounts. Check the amount of play in the steering rack or steering gear. Lateral play at the edge of the steering wheel should usually be less than 1/4 inch (always refer to manufacturer specifications). Replace worn parts and/or adjust rack yoke or adjustment screw on steering box to reduce play.

Loose or improperly adjusted wheel bearings. Check and adjust wheel bearings to specifications.

Insufficient caster. This may be due to increased ride height at the rear of the vehicle (raising the rear end with air shocks or air springs) or lowered ride height at the front of the vehicle (weak springs or shorter than stock springs). Increase caster and/or reset to specifications.

Extremely low tire pressure. Inflate to recommended pressure.

Extreme toe misalignment. Check the steering linkage and adjust or repair as needed.


The steering suddenly jerks or veers to one side or the other when the vehicle passes over a bump. The condition is caused by unequal toe changes that occur as the suspension travels through jounce and rebound. The condition can be confirmed by checking individual front toe with the suspension loaded (compressed), then checking toe again with the suspension raised slightly. If the amount of toe change is not equal on both front wheels, it can cause a momentary pull to one side. The direction of the pull will depend on which end is high or low, and whether the steering linkage is ahead or behind the knuckle.

Possible causes include:

Parallelogram steering linkage not level. Check the idler arm height, and adjust as required.

Steering rack not level. Check rack height and rack mounts. Repair, adjust or replace as needed.

Bent steering arms. Check to see that both are the same height. Replace knuckle (or strut if arms are mounted on strut) if bent to correct.

Structural damage such as frame twist, mislocated or twisted crossmember or engine cradle.

Not centering the steering linkage before adjusting toe. This can result in unequal toe changes when the suspension moves up and down.


The steering veers or pulls to one side during hard acceleration. This is a common condition in front-wheel drive cars with unequal length driveshafts, and is caused by unequal toe changes as the suspension is loaded. Compliance allows the wheel with the longer driveshaft to experience less toe-in change than the wheel with the shorter driveshaft. This causes the vehicle to veer towards the side with the longer driveshaft. FWD cars with equal length driveshafts usually do not experience this condition.

Torque steer cannot be eliminated, but certain conditions may make it worse:

Loose or collapsed control arm bushings.

Loose or worn tie rod ends.

Loose or worn inner tie rod sockets.

Loose or broken engine/transaxle mounts.

Vehicle manufacturers have offered various repairs to reduce the severity of torque steer in some FWD cars. The corrective measures include using stiffer control arm bushings, shimming motor mounts, realigning the engine cradle, replacing the motor mounts with stiffer mounts, or increasing cross-camber.

Know More About Wheel Alignment Problems

How do you align an “unalignable” vehicle? It depends on what makes it unalignable. The vehicle above is unalignable because it has lost a wheel due to a major suspension failure. Fortunately, most vehicles allow front toe adjustments, but many have no adjustments for front camber, caster, rear camber or toe. If the wheels are out of the factory specified range and need to be corrected, it may seem like mission impossible, especially if you are not aware of any aftermarket alignment aids such as shims, eccentrics, offset bushings, strut plates or other modifications for the particular vehicle you are trying to align.

The secret to aligning these kinds of “unalignable” vehicles, therefore, is taking your vehicle to a shop that has an up-to-date alignment machine.


Chrysler Cirrus, Dodge Stratus and Plymouth Breeze have no factory front camber adjustments. Chrysler says no adjustment is needed because these cars are built to such exacting tolerances. Yeah, right. We have heard that one before. Either somebody goofed or Chryslers bean counters axed the camber adjustment to save a few bucks on every car they build. In any event, we all know that some of these cars will likely require a camber adjustment at some point in their lives. So one aftermarket supplier has come up with set of eccentric cams and bushings to replace the stock bushings in the upper control arms. The eccentrics provide up to 0.75 degrees of camber correction.

Other new Chrysler vehicles that also lack factory provisions for front camber adjustment include the 1995 and up Dodge Avenger, Chrysler Sebring and Eagle Talon (also Mitsubishi Eclipse and Galant). The fix here is another set of aftermarket eccentric cams and bushings for the upper control arm.

Going back a couple of years, the rear suspensions under 1993 and newer Chrysler “LH” cars (Chrysler Concorde, New Yorker, LHS, Dodge Intrepid and Eagle Vision), have two lateral links on each side and MacPherson struts. The rear link on both sides is adjustable to change toe (the preferred setting is 0.1 degrees toe in, with an acceptable range of 0.2 degrees out to 0.4 degrees in). But there is no way to adjust camber. Chrysler allows anywhere from negative 0.6 to positive 0.4 degrees of rear camber, with a preferred setting of negative 0.1 degrees. But if there is more than half a degree of camber difference between the rear wheels, the wheels should be realigned. The way to do it is to replace the original equipment bushings in the rear links on each side with aftermarket eccentric cams and bushings.

1994 and newer Dodge 1500 4WD trucks as well as 1984 to 1996 Jeeps have no factory camber adjustment and no means of changing individual caster on the front wheels. But there is a way to change both if your customer is willing to pay for new ball joints. Replacing the upper ball joints with adjustable aftermarket ball joints can provide up to 2.0 degrees of camber/caster correction in 0.5 degree increments.


Ford provides front camber adjustment on the 1995 Windstar, but the amount of adjustment is limited. An aftermarket upper strut mount can be installed to provide up to 1.25 degrees of positive camber change.

On 1995 Ford Explorer (2WD & 4WD), the front suspension has limited caster adjustment but no camber adjustment. The solution? A set of aftermarket cam bolts that replace the original equipment upper control arm bolts.

Some people think all late model Ford trucks are “unalignable.” But since 1987, all Ford trucks except the fullsize 4x4s have a pinch bolt suspension that allows the ball joint bushings to be easily replaced for camber/caster corrections. Do not assume the original equipment bushing has a zero degree offset, though. It usually does not. Many have 1 to 1-1/2 degrees, usually positioned to correct camber. If you have checked camber/caster alignment, replaced the OE bushing with an offset aftermarket bushing to make your corrections, and then find your camber/caster readings are not what they should be, it means the OE bushing did not have zero offset. The solution here is to install an aftermarket zero offset bushing to make a

reference check. Then replace this bushing with one that is offset the desired amount to make your camber/caster correction.

On 1986 and up Ford Taurus, front camber and caster can be adjusted by drilling out the spot welds on the upper strut bearing plate to adjust camber and caster. But sometimes the strut cannot be moved enough to correct the problem, which may mean the engine cradle is shifted to one side possibly as a result of collision damage or misassembly if the transaxle has been replaced. If you see too much camber on one side and not enough on the other, it usually means the cradle is shifted toward the side with the least amount of camber. When this happens, it also changes the SAI angle because the cradle moves the lower pivots of the control arms. If the SAI goes down on one side, camber goes up an equal and opposite amount. So the first thing you should do is measure SAI and the included angle on both sides. Then use a jack to raise the subframe, loosen the cradle bolts and shift it toward the side with the most camber until SAI is equal on both sides. This will usually correct the camber problem. If not, there are aftermarket upper strut mounts that can provide up to 1.25 degrees of positive camber adjustment.

Rear camber adjustments of up to 2-1/2 degrees can be made on Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable station wagons by removing the factory pivot bolts on the rear control arms and installing cam bolts with eccentrics. There are also combination camber/toe offset bushings that allows 2 degrees of camber and/or 1 degree of toe change for both rear wheels. If you need more toe correction, an eccentric bushing that allows up to 2.25 degrees of toe change can be installed where the OE toe adjuster bolt attaches the rear spindle to the lower control arm.

Going back further, 1991 and up Ford Escort and Mercury Tracer models have just one rear toe adjuster on the right side. Installing an aftermarket offset bushing on the left side allows you to set individual toe on both sides, not just total toe. Also, the nonadjustable OE toe bushing on the outer left rear parallel arm can be replaced with an aftermarket adjustable offset bushing to provide up to 2 degrees of toe correction. Camber corrections on these models can be made by installing camber wedges between the strut and spindle.


On GMs “W” body cars (Buick Regal, Chevy Lumina, Olds Cutlass Supreme and Pontiac Grand Prix), the 1988-89 models had a factory cam for rear toe adjustment. In 1990, GM did away with the cam but left the slotted hole. Rear toe is still adjustable, but it is much easier if you install an aftermarket cam kit.

Front camber adjustments can also be made on these cars by repositioning the upper strut mount after elongating the three bolt holes. One aftermarket supplier makes a template that can be used as a guide to cut the holes into slots.


On Honda Accord, Civic, CRX, Del Sol, Prelude and Odyssey models, as well as Acura Integra, Legend and Vigor, there are no provisions for camber adjustment on the front suspension. But camber corrections can be made by replacing the stock upper control arm bushings with aftermarket eccentric cams and/or offset anchor bolts. This can provide from one half degrees negative to 1-1/2 degrees positive camber correction.

Rear camber on 1986-89 Honda Accords, which has no factory adjustment, can be corrected by replacing the OE mounting bracket and bushings that attach the rear upper control arm to the inner fender with aftermarket offset bushings.

You also won ‘t find any factory adjustments for rear camber on 1984-89 Nissan 300ZX and 1984-88 Nissan 200SX models. Drilling out the support brackets for the rear trailing arms and installing an aftermarket offset camber plates can give 1 or 1-1/2 degrees of positive camber correction.

Trying to align a rear-wheel drive Nissan or Datsun vehicle that has no caster adjustment? It should not be a problem if you install an aftermarket caster adjuster kit over the strut rod. Such a kit can give you up to 1-1/2 degrees of positive or negative caster adjustment.

Many Toyota 4WD trucks with 40, 60 or 70 series monobeam axles have no factory camber/caster adjustments. The same goes for Suzuki Samurai 4WD trucks. The fix here is to replace the original equipment bearings with eccentric bearings that provide up to 2.2 degrees of camber/caster adjustment.


Another vehicle you might classify as “unalignable” is any that has adjustments but the adjustments are difficult to make for various reasons. Toe sleeves may be inaccessible, rusted solid or require special tools to adjust. Such vehicle can be a real pain in the slip plates to adjust. Even so, there are usually aftermarket products or tools that can help.

Adjusting toe on a front-wheel drive Chrysler “LH” car, for example, can be tricky because (1) the sleeves and jamnuts are hard to reach, and (2) the outer tie rod ends tend to twist against the steering arm when the outer jamnut is tightened up against the adjusting sleeve. This can upset your carefully made toe adjustment as well as bind the outer tie rod end. One aftermarket company has introduced a new tool set that allows you to reach and break loose or tighten the jamnuts while holding the outer tie rod in a centered position. The kit includes a cup that fits over the outer tie rod to hold it steady, a special tie rod socket to loosen (and tighten) the jamnuts, and a special wrench to turn the adjusting sleeve.

On General Motors “J” and “N” body cars that have a center takeoff rack & pinion steering gear mounted on the firewall, rust can make toe adjustments anything but fun. Rust builds up in the tie rod linkage, preventing the sleeve from turning far enough to make the adjustment. One cure is to take it apart, clean out the rust, then reassemble and make toe adjustment. Or, you can replace the sleeve with a new one.

If you have ever tried to make a camber/caster adjustment on a 1994 or newer Camaro or Firebird, it helps to have a tool that can push or pull the strut while the weight of the car is on the suspension. Position the tool with the ends in either the caster or camber slots (do caster first, then camber if both need to be corrected). The tool must be in place before loosening the lower control arm nuts so the suspension does not shift. After loosening the control arm nuts, turn the tool to pull or push the strut in the desired direction, then tighten the nuts once the desired correction has been made.


A third category of “unalignable” vehicles includes “problem” vehicles that keep wearing out tires or do not steer straight no matter what has been done to the alignment. Sometimes the problem is undiagnosed collision damage such as a bent strut, steering arm, control arm, mislocated strut tower, subframe or engine cradle that is affecting alignment. Rear axle steer is another often overlooked problem that can cause front toe wear as well as a steering pull.

A problem vehicle may turn out to have misaligned structural members that position the front or rear suspension. Assembly line build tolerances have tightened considerably in recent years, but no vehicle manufacturer is perfect. Mistakes happen, and the so-called plus or minus 1 mm build tolerance is more myth than reality in many instances.

Some vehicles (especially trucks) just seem to wear tires because of built-in Ackerman problems (or the lack thereof) that prevent the front wheels from toeing out properly when turning. Others may rub the shoulders off the front tires because of high built-in caster angles in the front suspension. There is not you can do about these kinds of problems short of reengineering the suspension.

Tips To Replace Brake Pads

Replacing a set of brake pads is a common brake repair procedure. But if not done correctly, it can cause problems. Brake systems are very sensitive to rust and corrosion and should receive a thorough cleaning when new pads are installed. Residual rust or corrosion left in critical areas can cause brake issues almost immediately.

Brake Safety Precautions on Late Model Cars

A growing number of late model cars are equipped with antilock brake systems that can precharge the brakes in anticipation of braking (to reduce braking reaction time), or actually apply the brakes automatically as a function of the collision prevention system (automatic braking).

Milyarder ini membocorkan rahasia cara menghasilkan 38 juta/hari
Laporan khusus kisah sukses seorang buruh yang menjadi milyarder. CAUTION: If you are replacing the brake pads on these vehicles, the braking system must be deactivated before you work on the brakes, otherwise the system may energize the brakes unexpectedly causing the caliper pistons to push outward with considerable force. This could pinch your fingers if they are between the pads and rotors. If the pads have been removed, the pistons can blow out of their calipers. This can happen even when the ignition and engine are off!

The antilock brake system can be deactivated by locating and removing the main power fuse for the ABS system, or by using a scan tool to temporarily deactivate the system. Disconnecting the battery also works, but this may cause loss of certain memory settings in various vehicle modules. See Battery Disconnect Cautions & Problems for more information on this subject.

Replacing the Brake Pads

The basic procedure for replacing the front brake pads goes as follows:

1.Park your vehicle on a level surface, set the parking brake and place the transmission in Park (in gear if manual shift). Then loosen the lug nuts while the weight of the vehicle is still on the wheels. Do NOT remove the lugs nuts yet!

2.Raise the vehicle with a floor jack until the front wheels are off the ground. Support the vehicle with TWO safety stands. Do NOT rely on the jack alone to support the vehicle.

3. Remove the lug nuts and remove the wheel from the hub.

4. Determine how the brake calipers are mounted, and remove the pins or bolts that hold the calipers in place. On some applications, you can remove one pin or bolt and rotate the caliper up away from the rotor to replace the pads. On others, both bolts must be removed so the caliper can be lifted up and away from the rotor to change the pads.

CAUTION: Do NOT allow the calipers to hand by their hoses as this may damage the hoses. Rest the calipers on a suspension component (if possible) or support them with a piece of heavy wire.

5. Remove the inner and outer pads from the caliper. They may be held in place with wires or clips. Be careful not to damage these clips. Save them for reuse when the new pads are installed.

6. Once the pads have been removed from the calipers, inspect the calipers carefully to make sure they are not leaking any fluid, and that the piston dust seals are not cracked or damaged. If a caliper is leaking, it will have to be replaced or rebuilt with new piston seals. Cracked dust seals should also be replaced to help protect the pistons.

7. Use a large C-clamp to carefully push the caliper pistons back into the calipers. This is necessary so there will be enough clearance for the new (thicker) brake pads. It may be necessary to remove some fluid from the master brake reservoir so it does not overflow when the pistons are pushed back into the calipers as this will displace brake fluid back to the master cylinder.

8.Install the new inner and outer brake pads into the calipers. Replace any shims, springs or clips that were used with the original pads to hold them in place (unless new hardware or shims came with the new pads, in which case discard the old shims or hardware and replace with new). Apply a light coating of moly based brake lubricant (never ordinary grease) to the BACKS of the pads and to the points where they contact or rest against the calipers. Do NOT get any grease on the front (friction side) of the pads as this will ruin the pads and cause uneven braking.

9.Lubricate the caliper mounts and pins, and reinstall the pins or bolts, slide the caliper back into place over the rotor and tighten the mounting bolts to specifications with a torque wrench. If the original pins, bushings or bolts are badly corroded or damaged, replace them with new. Do NOT reuse badly corroded or damaged mounting hardware.

9. Remount the wheels on the hubs, tighten the lug nuts, then lower the vehicle until the tires are on the ground and final tighten the lug nuts to specifications with a torque wrench using an alternating star pattern (necessary for even loading and to prevent rotor distortion).

10. Start the engine and pump the brake pedal several times until the pedal feels firm. Do NOT drive the vehicle without first pumping the brakes to make sure your vehicle will stop when you apply the brakes! Then do a short test drive and do a series of gradual stops from about 30 mph with gradual braking. Do NOT slam on the brakes and avoid hard braking for the first couple hundred miles of driving.

Brake Pad Installation Tips

The following brake pad installation tips are provided courtesy of Bendix:

Calipers. Areas that are subject to movement or retain components or hardware should be cleaned, along with the pin bores. Therefore, calipers need to be disassembled during pad replacement. Use a round wire brush and cleaner to remove old lubricant and corrosion. Use a fine polishing disc in a die grinder at a lower speed to clean the area. Avoid being too aggressive, especially with aluminum components, to ensure you only remove corrosion and not any metal. Be sure any areas on anti-rattle clips or hardware are free of debris as this can affect their performance over the life of the brake job.

Calipers on Ford 3/4 and 1-ton trucks have seen slides freeze shortly after brake service if they are not properly cleaned.

Pad Abutments. Whether they are part of the caliper bracket or steering knuckle, pad abutments need to be clean and smooth. If there are any notches or grooves caused by pad movement, these parts should be replaced. Damage like this can cause excessive pad movement that leads to noise and vibration.

Hub assemblies. Use a polishing pad to clean rust from the hub face. Then use an over-the-stud hub cleaner to get in next to the studs. Leaving corrosion in these areas is one of the top causes for pulsations after a brake job is completed.

Mounting Pads. One area that is often overlooked is the mounting pad on the hub that mates with the wheel. If there is rust or debris on this surface, it can lead to rotor distortion and pulsations just as easily as if it were left on the hub.

Rotors. New or machined rotors should be washed with soap, warm water and a stiff brush to remove metal particles from the surface. If this final step is not taken, brake noise may likely result. It can also prevent proper filming of the rotor which will keep the new parts from getting their expected mileage.

Bendix also recommends you clean the rear calipers and drum and parking brake systems. All these components should receive a good cleaning, inspection, lubrication and adjustment before the vehicle hits the road.